Artificial Intelligence in Internet of Things


Functioning of the Internet is persistently transforming from the Internet of Computers (IoC) to the “Internet of Things (IoT).” Furthermore, massively interconnected systems, also known as Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) are emerging from the assimilation of many facets like infrastructure, embedded devices, smart objects, humans and physical environments. What we are heading to is a huge “Internet of Everything in a Smart Cyber Physical Earth.” IoT and CPS conjugated with “data science” may emerge as the next “smart revolution”. The concern that arises then is to handle the huge data generated with the much weaker existing computation power. The research in data science and artificial intelligence (AI) has been striving to give an answer to this problem. Thus, IoT with AI can become a huge breakthrough. This is not just about saving money, smart things, reducing human effort or any trending hype. This is much more than that - easing human life. There are, however, some serious issues like the security concerns and ethical issues which will go on plaguing IoT. The big picture is not how fascinating IoT with AI seems, but how the common people perceive it - a boon, a burden or a threat.

Artifical Intelligence

Artifical Intelligence (AI) is the science of instilling intelligence in machines so that they are capable of doing tasks that traditionally required the human mind. AI based systems are evolving rapidly in terms of application, adaption, processing speed and capabilities. Machines are increasingly becoming capable of taking on less-routine tasks. While, humans intelligence is actually 'taking' a perfect decision at the approapriate time, AI is merely about 'choosing' a right decision at the approapriate time. To put plainly, the creativity in decision that humans can take is lacking in AI.

Internet of Things

Even a few decades back, nobody could have imagined having a video chat with their families in a different continent. Nowadays, it isacommonthing.Alloftheseisduetotechnologygettingcheaper, and devices emerging with new and improved capabilities. People can get things done with a click on their smartphone, be it sending emails, paying bills, transferring money or booking a cab.

1.1 Internet of Everything

Usually people get confused about the concepts of Internet of Things and Internet of Everything. According to Cisco [7], “the Internet of Everything is the intelligent connection of people, process, data and things.” The IoE connects up the physical things to the cyber things into one cohesive whole. It is not just about allowing devices to talk to each other; it is about allowing everything (living, non-living or any virtual object) to talk about each other. This virtual object part is missing in IoT.

1.2 Things and Everything

When we are talking about IoT and IoE, we must be very clear about the concept of “things” and “everything”. One straightforward concept that may come to mind is any thing that can be connected maybe the “thing” in IoT. However, we define it other way round. There can be more features in making a physical object a “thing”. The “thing” (living or non-living) should have:

1. a way to generate or collect data,

2. a way to process data,

3. a way to send or receive data,

4. a way to identify itself.

1.3 AI enabled IoT

IoT is a vast concept encompassing too many sensors, actuators, data storage and data processing capabilities interconnected by the Internet. Thus any IoT enabled device can sense its surroundings, transmit, store and process the data gathered and act accordingly. The last step of acting accordingly is entirely dependent on the processing step. The true smartness of an IoT service is determined by the level of processing or acting that it can perform. A non-smart IoT system will have limited capability and will be unable to evolve with the data. However, a smarter IoT system will have artificial intelligence and may serve the actual goal of automation and adaptation

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